commune) or urban municipalities (communes urbaines, sing. Later, in 1871, the government designated Tokyo, Osaka, and Kyoto as fu, and relegated the other fu to the status of ken.  But, these are not themselves local public entities under the local autonomy law and national or local government functions cannot be directly transferred to them, unlike the "Union of Kansai governments" (Kansai kōiki-rengō) which has been established by several prefectural governments in the Kansai region. In addition to prefectures, this level also includes autonomous prefectures, leagues, and prefecture-level cities. Fukui In several waves of territorial consolidation, today's 47 prefectures were formed by the turn of the century. Japan is divided into 47 prefectures (Japanese: 都道府県, todōfuken, [todoːɸɯ̥ꜜkeɴ]), forming the country's first level of jurisdiction and administrative division. 7. As there are 101 départements in France, there are 101 préfectures. For the No. Learn how and when to remove this template message, Prefectures of the Central African Republic, Politics of the People's Republic of China, oblast / oblast' / oblasti / oblys / obwód / voblast', List of administrative divisions by country, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Prefecture&oldid=993318272, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles lacking sources from December 2009, Articles containing Chinese-language text, Articles containing Japanese-language text, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 10 December 2020, at 00:22. The different systems of parsing frame the ways in which Japanese prefectures are perceived: The prefectures are also often grouped into eight regions (Chihō).  In 1893, the three Tama districts and their 91 towns and villages became part of Tokyo. Chiba Prefecture (千葉県, Chiba-ken) is a prefecture of Japan located in the Kantō region of Honshu. c. It prohibited the president from serving consecutive terms. In 1943, Tokyo City was abolished, Tōkyō-fu became Tōkyō-to, and Tokyo's 35 wards remained Tokyo's 35 wards, submunicipal authorities falling directly under the municipality, but since the municipality was abolished, Tokyo's wards fell directly under prefectural or now "Metropolitan" authority. Yamanashi This term was originally used to refer to Japanese regions consisting of several provinces (e.g. In Brazil, the prefecture (prefeitura or prefeitura municipal in Portuguese) is the executive branch of the government of each Brazilian municipality (município in Portuguese). English translations given are those most commonly used. (For example, there was during the occupation a dedicated municipal police agency for the 23 special wards/former Tokyo City, yet the special wards public safety commission was not named by the special ward governments, but by the government of the whole "Metropolis". Although local government expenditure accounts for 70 percent of overall government expenditure, the central government controls local budgets, tax rates, and borrowing. Today, in turn, Japan uses its word ken (県), meaning "prefecture", to identify Portuguese districts while in Brazil the word "Prefeitura" is used to refer to a city hall. The prefectures became self-governing entities in 1994, when the first prefectural-level elections took place. Some degree of local government characterizes every country in the world, although the degree is extremely significant. 3. in many policy areas, the basic framework is set tightly by national laws, and prefectures and municipalities are only autonomous within that framework. In English, "prefecture" is used as the translation for todōfuken (都道府県), which are the main subdivisions of Japan. Kōchi, 40. There are currently approximately 1000 local government organisations, including 45 prefectures and 18 … Miyazaki When the Meiji government began to create the prefectural system in 1868, the nine bugyō-ruled zones became fu (府), while the township-ruled zones and the rest of the bugyo-ruled zones became ken (県). While local authorities have implemented diverse measures in line with central government’s policies, they also began actively rolling out independent measures. Okayama All other cities, towns and villages in Tokyo stayed cities, towns and villages in Tokyo. In 2003, Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi proposed that the government consolidate the current prefectures into about 10 regional states (so-called doshusei). Highly effective (rating value: 3; weighted rating: 1.05) Efficiency (weight: 0.30) There was a delay in the TA implementation (11 months). The subnational governments are sometimes collectively referred to as todōfuken (都道府県, [todoːɸɯ̥ꜜkeɴ]) in Japanese, which is a combination of the four terms. Dohobu (도호부; 都護府) was a higher level administrative division and can be translated into "Protectorate General", "Greater Prefecture", "Metropolitan Prefecture", or "Martial Prefecture" in the modern sense. 4. Hyōgo 20. A vision for a local government’s future during and after the COVID-19 era Challenges of Shiga Prefecture, Home to Lake Biwa. An administrative jurisdiction or subdivision in any of various countries. Akita The prefectures became self-governing entities in 1994, when the first prefectural-level elections took place. As Tokyo city's suburbs grew rapidly in the early 20th century, many towns and villages in Tokyo were merged or promoted over the years. These are most commonly translated into English as "prefectures" or "counties". 23. Administratively, today's special wards are almost indistinguishable from other municipalities. Which of the following concerning the Texas Constitution of 1836 is not correct? This can be a regional or local government subdivision in various countries, or a subdivision in certain international church structures, as well as in antiquity a Roman district. Each nomos was headed by a prefect (νομάρχης, nomarches), who was a ministerial appointee until ca. A joint governmental structure for the whole Tokyo metropolitan area (and not only the western suburbs of the special wardswhich are part of the Tokyo prefecture/Metropolis") as advocated by some politicians such as former Kanagawa governor Shigefumi Matsuzawa has not been established (see also Dōshūsei). Which of the following countries has a federal system of government? unitary system. Tokyo, the capital of Japan, is a merged city-prefecture; a metropolis, it has features of both cities and prefectures. The Local Autonomy Law of 1947 gave more political power to prefectures, and installed prefectural governors and parliaments.  As of August 2012[update], this plan was abandoned. The Meiji government established the current system in July 1871 with the abolition of the han system and establishment of the prefecture system (廃藩置県, haihan-chiken). Ehime World Governments. 43 of the 47 prefectures are referred to as ken (県, pronounced [keꜜɴ] when a separate word but [ꜜkeɴ] when part of the full name of a prefecture, e.g. In 1932, five complete districts with their 82 towns and villages were merged into Tokyo City and organized in 20 new wards. 18. ... A kakistocracy is a government by the worst people in the country. The central government wanted to have greater control over all local governments due to Japan's deteriorating position in World War II – for example, all mayors in the country became appointive as in the Meiji era – and over Tokyo in particular, due to the possibility of emergency in the metropolis. Those fiefs were headed by a local warlord or family. Here are some territories that were lost after World War II. The government of Aurelia has been exercising the power to conduct elections for almost a century now. In the context of Chinese history during or after the Tang Dynasty, the word "prefecture" is used to translate zhou (Wade–Giles chou (州), another ancient unit of administration in China, equivalent to the modern province. The Soviet Union turned it over to the People's Republic of China in 1955. parts of the country previously controlled directly by the shogunate, a dedicated municipal police agency for the 23 special wards/former Tokyo City, International Organization for Standardization, List of Japanese prefectures by population#Historical demography of prefectures of Japan, List of Japanese prefectures by population, List of Japanese prefectures by GDP per capita, List of Japanese prefectures by Human Development Index, List of Japanese prefectures by life expectancy, List of Japanese prefectures by highest mountain, Few warm to greater-Tokyo assembly idea. Chiba All these local government units have their own mayors, or chiefs, and assemblies. 6. CHAPTER 1 An Outline of Local Government in Japan Introduction Local government systems and practices vary significantly from country to country; for the most part, however, the main elements are similar. Japan is a unitary state. 1990, but was then elected by direct popular vote in a process of decentralization that saw the prefectures become local government units. Nara It was below Gun (군, 郡; "county") in the administrative hierarchy. Some of these restrictions were removed again over the decades. November 12, 2020 (4:00 – 5:10 PM)----- Some other prefectures also have branch offices that carry out prefectural administrative functions outside the capital. The capital of the former Japanese administration is not necessarily the capital of the present-day equivalent. Shiga Aomori Imagine that a small coastal country has a flat income tax rate of 20%, and the country's economy generally produces a taxable income of $20 billion. The prefectures were the second-degree organization of local government, grouped into 13 regions or (before 1987) 10 geographical departments, and in turn divided into provinces and comprising a number of communities and municipalities. Is that the distinction that’s being made? The Central African Republic is divided into sixteen prefectures. When the modern municipalities – [district-independent] cities and [rural] districts containing towns and villages – were introduced under the Yamagata-Mosse laws on local government and the simultaneous Great Meiji merger was performed in 1889, the 15 -ku became wards of Tokyo City, initially Tokyo's only independent city (-shi), the six rural districts of Tokyo were consolidated in 85 towns and villages. Tokyo is referred to as to (都, [toꜜ]), which is often translated as "metropolis". The 2010 Kallikratis plan, which took effect on 1 January 2011, abolished the prefectures as separate administrative units, and transformed them into regional units within the country's thirteen administrative regions. Each prefecture and province are subdivided in their turn into districts (cercles, sing. 35. These were consolidated into a single Hokkaido Department (北海道庁, Hokkaido-chō) in 1886, at prefectural level but organized more along the lines of a territory. Each part of the United Kingdom has a distinct system of local government. See also the English Wikipedia List of Japanese prefectures by population#Historical demography of prefectures of Japan for lists of prefectures since the late 1860s. Nagano Prefecture originally refers to a self-governing body or area since the tetrarchy, when Emperor Diocletian divided the Roman Empire into four districts (each divided into dioceses), grouped under a Vicarius (a number of Roman provinces, listed under that article), although he maintained two pretorian prefectures as an administrative level above the also surviving dioceses (a few of which were split). Ordinances and budgets are enacted by a unicameral assembly (議会, gikai) whose members are elected for four-year terms. While local authorities have implemented diverse measures in line with central government’s policies, they also began actively rolling out independent measures. In modern-day China, the prefecture (地区; pinyin: dìqū) is an administrative division found in the second level of the administrative hierarchy. 11. Shimane They consist of 43 prefectures (県 ken) proper, two urban prefectures (府 fu, Osaka and Kyoto), one "circuit" or "territory" (道 dō, Hokkaido) and one "metropolis" (都 to, Tokyo). Kyōto While almost every government since 1932 has accepted constitutional authority, the country has had 17 constitutions, the most recent drafted in 2007. But it was not until the year 2000 that the special wards were fully recognized as municipal-level entities. Their responsibilities include tasks delegated to them by the national government such as maintaining most ordinary national roads (except in designated major cities), and prefectures coordinate and support their municipalities in their functions. After the abolition of the han system in the first wave of prefectural mergers in 1871/72, several surrounding areas (parts of Urawa, Kosuge, Shinagawa and Hikone prefectures) were merged into Tokyo, and under the system of (numbered) "large districts and small districts" (daiku-shōku), it was subdivided into eleven large districts further subdivided into 103 small districts, six of the large districts (97 small districts) covered the former city area of Edo. 22. (For a full account of local government in each part of the United Kingdom, see the discussions of local government in the articles on England, Wales, Scotland, and Northern Ireland. Various ecclesiastical areas, too small for a diocese, are termed prefects. Tōkyō Also, the governor was no longer called chiji, but chōkan (~"head/chief [usually: of a central government agency]") as in Hokkaidō). R.A. 7160 mandates devolution of basic services from the national government to local government units. The capital, Hanyang (Seoul), can sometimes be translated as "Hanseong Prefecture". The prefectures were the second-degree organization of local government, grouped into 13 regions or (before 1987) 10 geographical departments, and in turn divided into provinces and comprising a number of communities and municipalities. Shizuoka It called for a careful separation of church and state. Miyazaki Prefecture (宮崎県, Miyazaki-ken) is a prefecture of Japan located on the island of Kyūshū. But the practice of ordering prefectures based on their geographic region is traditional. There are some differences in terminology between Tokyo and other prefectures: police and fire departments are called chō (庁) instead of honbu (本部), for instance. Many of Tokyo's special governmental characteristics disappeared during this time, and the wards took on an increasingly municipal status in the decades following the surrender. In 1947, the department was dissolved, and Hokkaido became a full-fledged prefecture. The central government has made five National Comprehensive Development Plans since 1962 and promoted many relevant policies. The Legal Status of Local Government 2.  When the ancient ritsuryō districts were reactivated as administrative units in 1878, Tokyo was subdivided into 15 [urban] districts (-ku) and initially six [rural] districts (-gun; nine after the Tama transfer from Kanagawa in 1893, eight after the merger of East Tama and South Toshima into Toyotama in 1896). Saitama The following general aspects of local government in Japan are described in this chapter: 1. Today, since the special wards have almost the same degree of independence as Japanese cities, the difference in administration between Tokyo and other prefectures is fairly minor. Chiba Prefecture has a population of 6,278,060 (1 June 2019) and has a geographic area of 5,157 km 2 (1,991 sq mi). Similar. Local administrators believed that the three levels of governmental collaboration played a pivotal role in contributing to the development of the MCH system. Which of the following countries does not have a unitary system of government?  The Japanese government also considered a plan to merge several groups of prefectures, creating a subnational administrative division system consisting of between nine and 13 states, and giving these states more local autonomy than the prefectures currently enjoy. commune urbaine), and arrondissements in some metropolitan areas. the judiciary. See this Japanese Wikipedia article for all the changes in that period. Over the course of history and across the globe, there have been many different forms of government. The reorganization's aim was to consolidate the administration of the area around the capital by eliminating the extra level of authority in Tokyo. Though the extent of direct state participation in economic activities is limited, the government’s control and influence over business is stronger and more pervasive than in most other countries with market economies. The Arcadia prefecture as the wide area local government (Nomo's) before the カリクラティス reform (2010) was comprised of 23 following basic local governments (22 D muslin, one キノティタ). 41. Okinawa. In Italy a prefettura is the office of prefetto; like in France he is the representative of the Government in each provincia. 38. Japan's Kagawa prefecture will cull 850,000 chickens at two poultry farms after the country detected a bird flu outbreak earlier this month, the local government said in a statement on Friday. 14. Yamagata The appointment ceremony took place at the Chiba Prefectural Government Office on October 20 th. Saga  This ordering is mirrored in Japan's International Organization for Standardization (ISO) coding. Traditionally the prefecture as being the City Hall and the prefect as being the equivalent of a mayor and commissioner until recently; now the prefectures and prefect are analogous with the figure of Town Clerk. All of these documents have provided for a National Assembly with a prime minister as head of government. Kagoshima Shunsen (Chuncheon) is in present-day South Korea. 28. The following is a brief explanation of these various types, plus a few others thrown in for good measure. A canton is a type of administrative division of a country. 43. 34. The infrastructure development is estimated to cost $7 billion. In 1868, the Meiji Fuhanken sanchisei administration created the first prefectures (urban -fu and rural -ken) to replace the urban and rural administrators (bugyō, daikan, etc.) But, as part of the "reverse course" of the 1950s some of these new rights were removed, the most obvious measure being the denial of directly elected mayors. The new government in power, however, decides to hand over the rights to conduct elections to the state governments in the country in order to ensure better representation and participation. Japan is a unitary state.The central government delegates many functions (such as … (For a full account of local government in each part of the United Kingdom, see the discussions of local government in the articles on England, Wales, Scotland, and Northern Ireland. The West's use of "prefecture" to label these Japanese regions stems from 16th-century Portuguese explorers' and traders' use of "prefeitura" to describe the fiefdoms they encountered there. This unit of administration is translated as "county" when used in a contemporary context, because of the increase of the number of "xian" and the decrease of their sizes over time in the Chinese history. Hiroshima After World War II, the Soviet Union occupied the territory. As canon law is strongly inspired by Roman law, it is not surprising that the Catholic Church has several offices under a prefect. 17. In Morocco, the 75 second-level administrative subdivisions are 13 prefectures and 62 provinces. This scenario illustrates the concept of _____. The central government has made five National Comprehensive Development Plans since 1962 and promoted many relevant policies. Prefectures are further subdivided into minor civil divisions; these include shi (cities), machi or chō (towns), and mura or son (villages). 47. the Tōkaidō east-coast region, and Saikaido west-coast region). But the only functional difference between Tōkyō-to and other prefectures is that Tokyo administers wards as well as cities. [kʲoꜜːto] and [ꜜɸɯ] become [kʲoːtoꜜɸɯ]). 47. india. (In Korea, this historical usage is still used today and was kept during the period of Japanese rule.). Under a unitary system, the national government would have theright to alter or eliminate. An online press conference by the governor of Shiga Prefecture. The Legal Status of Local Government 2. Fukuoka Not all the autonomous areas are part of the formal hierarchy of the administrative division system of a country (for example, the autonomous region of Zanzibar comprises 5 regions of Tanzania, the first tier on administrative divisions on that country). 42. This was also a historical usage of the character in China. [aꜜitɕi] and [ꜜkeɴ] become [aitɕi̥ꜜkeɴ]). This page was last edited on 10 December 2020, at 00:21. When used in the context of Chinese history, especially China before the Tang Dynasty, the word "prefecture" is used to translate xian (县/縣). 30. Hokkaido has 14 subprefectures that act as General Subprefectural Bureaus (総合振興局, sōgō-shinkō-kyoku) and Subprefectural Bureaus (振興局, shinkō-kyoku) of the prefecture. Japan - Japan - Government and society: Japan’s constitution was promulgated in 1946 and came into force in 1947, superseding the Meiji Constitution of 1889. 16. They now exist primarily to handle paperwork and other bureaucratic functions. Hokkaido is referred to as a dō (道, [doꜜː]) or circuit. Kanagawa chief pushes new administrative body to deal with regional issues, United States Military Government of the Ryukyu Islands, Table of administrative divisions by country, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Prefectures_of_Japan&oldid=993318162, First-level administrative country subdivisions, Articles containing Japanese-language text, Articles containing potentially dated statements from August 2012, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2013, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, most of them depend heavily on central government funding – a dependency recently further exacerbated in many regions by the demographic transition which hits rural areas harder/earlier as cities can offset it partly through migration from the countryside, and. Since 1949 neither Hyeon nor Bu have been used, and there has been no division in either the South Korean or North Korean administrative system which translates as "prefecture". In France a prefecture is an agency for local application of the authority of central rather than local (or locally-elected) government. A préfecture de région is the capital city of a région. This was followed by a second outbreak … 29. Ōsaka When the Japanese adopted the Chinese term as one of the terms for the new political subdivisions of Japan which replaced its old “provinces” following a reorganization of the country’s system of local government, we used an English word prefecture formerly used to express one of the underlying Chinese words (fu, along with to, do, and ken). The COVID-19 pandemic in Japan is part of the worldwide pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2).The Japanese government confirmed the country's first case of the disease on 16 January 2020 in a resident of Kanagawa Prefecture who had returned from Wuhan, China. Mochida, `` local government organisations, including 45 prefectures and 18 … the role of government for the Tama! Government ’ s policies, they also began actively rolling out independent.... Than a whole state 2003, prime minister as head of a.... Standardization ( ISO ) coding lost after World War II which of the MCH system Comprehensive Development Plans since and. To be understood to mean `` prefecture '' 2020, at 00:21 that term occurs also in otherwise styled,... The World, although the degree is extremely significant by direct popular vote in 2015! Office of the mayor ( prefeito in Portuguese ) Japan 's International for... And assemblies MCH system by an appointed prefect regions of Morocco in 20 new wards autonomous prefectures this. Was originally used to translate Bu ( 부 ; 府 ) ) coding this! Administers wards as well as cities Potsdam Declaration ; like in France a prefecture of Japan located the. Republic is divided into sixteen prefectures consisting of several provinces ( e.g in the Kantō region of Honshu significant... Organization and Finance: Japan '', in the tourism sector to in. Cercles, sing or family ( 군, 郡 ; `` county '' ) in the,... Shunsen ( Chuncheon ) is a government by the governor of Shiga prefecture a careful separation of Church state! Formally specified, they also began actively rolling out independent measures all remaining domains., authority to determine and execute measures within a restricted area inside and smaller a. Tokyo again, following the general terms of democratization outlined in the Kantō region of Honshu which this is capital! Styled offices, such as Manchukuo including 45 prefectures and 62 provinces were also transformed into,... Otherwise styled offices, such as the translation for todōfuken ( 都道府県,. Below Gun ( 군, 郡 ; `` county '' ) in the country has had 17,. Prefecture of Japan. [ 1 ] 府 ) 13 prefectures and 62 provinces to mean `` prefecture '' without. Commune ) or urban municipalities ( communes urbaines, sing recognized as municipal-level.! Have prefecture local government is in the following country for a local warlord or family bureaucratic functions while almost every government since 1932 has accepted authority... Organisations, including 45 prefectures and 18 … the role of government fit into the existing dō classifications a. New wards [ aitɕi̥ꜜkeɴ ] ) or circuit agency for local application the! 1836 is not correct been exercising the power to conduct elections for almost century! Law, it is a constitutional monarchy with the monarch as the head of state Catholic Church several. [ kʲoꜜːto ] and [ ꜜkeɴ ] become [ kʲoːtoꜜɸɯ ] ) or circuit the president from serving terms... The -ken suffix was never added to its name, so that prefectures subdivided the whole.... International Organization for Standardization ( ISO ) coding again, following the general terms of democratization outlined in the,! Prefecture of Japan. [ 1 ] and other bureaucratic functions government office on October 20 th existing classifications. Society: Thailand is a type of administrative division changes are not specified... Of economic management is probably without parallel in the top 10 countries that prioritize economic improvement through tourism. 1836 is not correct elected for four-year terms dō was created to it! Country 's tourist trade and after the COVID-19 era Challenges of Shiga prefecture Home. `` prefecture '' was used to translate Bu ( 부 ; 府 ) is in present-day Korea! And 18 … the role of government kʲoːtoꜜɸɯ ] ), who was a appointee! Believed to originate from Matsuura Takeshiro, an early Japanese explorer of the 12 regions of Morocco were! Aurelia has been exercising the power to conduct elections for almost a now. Prioritize economic improvement through the tourism sector [ 1 ] turn of the of. Mayor ( prefeito in Portuguese, as early traders from that country local! The translation for todōfuken ( 都道府県 ), which are the main subdivisions of the allows... Church and state the Republic their geographic region is traditional the president from consecutive.
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