and sow thistle ( Sonchus spp.) When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Lamp C; Collet F, 1976. California Invasive Plants Council. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label. Parte IV.) Grace and Scott (1974) and Turkington and Aarssen (1983) presented further information on the concentration of mineral elements in New Zealand and British plant material. (1981) also found that dry storage (in their case for 12 months at 5oC) reduced germination from 94% for fresh seed to 31%. Catsear is most commonly found growing on sandy or gravely soils. Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS). One or more of the features that are needed to show you the maps functionality are not available in the web browser that you are using. Herbaceous perennial growing from hard, thickened, overwintering base (caudex); fibrous-rooted, but often with several enlarged roots, appearing tap-rooted; leaves in a basal rosette, hairv (hispid), oblanceolate, toothed or pinnatifid, 3-25 cm long and 0.5-7 cm wide; stems (stalks) 15-60 cm tall , branched above, or in small plants simple, sparsely and minutely bracteate, or naked, often spreading-hispid below, possessing a ‘milky’ juice; leafless, with small scale-like bracts only; flower heads (capitula) yellow, 20-30 (-40) mm wide, usually several, terminating the branches and rather showy; florets ligulate, monoclinous and bisexual, the ligules surpassing the involucre and about four times as long as wide; involucre l0-15 mm high at anthesis, up to about 25 mm in fruit, its bracts imbricate, glabrous or hispid; fruit an achene, orange or brown, body of the achene mostly 4-7 mm long, from a little longer to more often much shorter than the slender beak, the prominent nerves and the lower part of the beak muricate; pappus plumose with two rows of hairs, shorter outer hairs commonly merely barbellate. Stems are 20 to 40 cm tall, stiff, wiry, smooth, and often branched. Ormrod DP; Renney AJ, 1968. Hypochaeris laevigata var. Growth habits of dandelion, daisy, catsear and hawkbit in some New Zealand grasslands. Cabrera AL, 1987. false dandelion. Hypochaeris L. – cat's ear Species: Hypochaeris glabra L. – smooth cat's ear Subordinate Taxa. Oikos, 50(1):3-12. H. radicata readily invades freshly disturbed environments, such as Mount St. Helens following its 1980 eruption (Schoenfelder et al., 2010), and can crowd out more palatable and productive forage species when it invades overgrazed pasture and rangeland (DiTomaso et al., 2013). Weed Control in Natural Areas in the Western United States. Schoenfelder AC; Bishop JG; Martinson HM; Fagan WF, 2010. A comparative study of germination characteristics in a local flora. Picó et al. It’s a universal problem too! Grime et al. Greensboro, North Carolina, USA: National Plant Data Team. The average weight is from 0.6-0.8 mg and germination ranges from 30 to 90% (Salisbury, 1964). Leaves of common catsear are typically lance-shaped with irregular rounded lobes and hairs on both the upper and lower surfaces. Ho (1964, cited in Aarssen, 1981) estimated an annual production of 2329 achenes per plant over a 27 day period in British Columbia. Livestock grazing benefits the growth and reproduction of H. radicata. It tolerates a wide range in soil types, texture and pH. The goal of this web-exclusive feature is to zero in on specific areas of hoof nutrition and avoid broad-based articles that simply look at the overall equine feeding situation. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). The same authors found that H. radicata is autotoxic, its own exudates inhibiting its growth by more than that of neighbouring plants, which may explain why it is often found as isolated individuals or in small clusters rather than forming large patches or pure stands (Aarssen, 1981). 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