It would seem, therefore, that the current conditions in Poland are favorable for the development of a significant feminist movement. "What they're reading in Poland". Nałkowska continued to analyse women's questions: in the novels Romans Teresy Hennert (Teresa Hennert’s Liaison, 1923) and Renata Słuczańska (1935) she dealt with the limits of women's liberty in traditional society. Rage and hope fuel women's revolt over abortion in Poland. Her written works include the book World Without Women in 2001. Women's movements often emerge and prosper in times of major societal upheavals Chafetz & Dworkin 1989, Jayawardena 1986. Digressions, personal attacks, hateful language and unsubstantiated claims will be removed — as will comments tied to false email addresses, impersonations and copyright-protected material. Zofia Nałkowska was especially active in the Polish women's movement. You are part of a grassroots movement of disabled women fighting for your rights in Poland. Żmichowska was also an active speaker, acting on behalf of women's causes. LGBTI activist Linus Lewandowski (in the background with a grey hat and rainbow face mask) marches during an anti-government protest in Warsaw on 30 October 2020. In 1918 Polish women gained political rights. In Poland, International Women's Daycomes with some practices that Polish feminists find problematic. Although feminist texts were produced in the 1950s and afterwards, they were usually controlled and generated by the Communist state[contradictory]. Therefore, while open resistance actions have generally been of a smaller scale and more dispersed due to coronavirus restrictions, they have continued on a “slow burner” and have been more diverse in character. This article looks at Polish women's movements in the context of how women's and social movements are defined theoretically and in the light of the development of the women's movement in Poland historically. Although the omission wasn't intentional, this fracture spurred the rise of black feminism.Since Women's Lib platforms focused solely on gender without the context of race and class, they weren't entirely relevant to all black women. Several hundred people joined the demonstration in Warsaw Anti-government actions organised by the Women’s Strike protest movement take place on Saturday in Poland. After the Polish government introduced the de facto legal ban on abortions (on January 7, 1993), feminists have changed their strategies. The Early Suffrage Movement. Adrienne Rich once commented on the “blanketing snow” that comes to “drift [. Coronavirus restrictions have forced anti-abortion law protests to become more low key, but no less creative. Behind the Headlines' panel discussion, Women and Resistance in Belarus and Poland will stream online on Thurs, Dec 10, 2020, at 7pm (Irish time). The most radical feminist demands were included in Edward Prądzyński’s book O prawach kobiety (On Women’s Rights, 1873), which advocated full equality of the sexes in every domain. Hundreds of thousands of Poles have taken to the streets against a major attack on abortion rights the country. Poland already had one of Europe’s most restrictive abortion laws, and the ruling would mean that the only legal reasons for abortion would be rape, incest or if the woman’s life is in danger. Feminism in post-communist Poland is contested by the Polish public due to the influence of the Catholic Church in an ongoing "war on gender". Jucewicz, Agnieszka (March 2003 - April 2003). According to Eugenia Łoch, Poland experienced three successive waves of feminism in the 19th century; the first and weakest wave came before the November uprising of 1830. The All-Poland Women's Strike (Polish: Ogólnopolski Strajk Kobiet, OSK), is a women's rights social movement in Poland, established in September 2016. This article illustrates the importance of examining the particular, local contexts within which women's movements emerge and unfold. Again, in circumstances where physical distancing is important and large-scale action can be framed as reckless and irresponsible, being at the top of a mountain quite simply achieves isolation while perpetuating visibility of the issue. Moreover, despite the rhetorical anger at the Catholic Church and some instances of disrupting mass early in the protests, clear instructions have been provided by coordinators on the Telegram channel Gdziecowwa to “bypass churches that will be valiantly defended by certain groups.”, Similar to how protesters started to completely ignore the churches defended by ultra-nationalists, riot police and military police, one of the main groups involved in organizing the anti-abortion protests called for complete disengagement from confrontation with the far-right march through Warsaw on Nov. 11, Poland’s Independence Day. https://www.cbsnews.com/news/poland-abortion-ban-women-national-strike In retrospect, it seems obvious: Polish women didn't really have a seat at the table during the transformation 25 years ago. . Both organizations provide services to survivors of domestic and other gender-based violence. The second (and stronger) wave took place between the November and January uprisings. RSF calls for the protection of reporters on the ground. Despite questions having been raised about the representational nature of the councils, there seems a genuine effort to make them inclusive toward younger and diverse members, while various groups continue their own initiatives on the ground and across Poland. In terms of continuing the momentum for the cancellation of the new abortion law, the establishment of the Women’s Strike Council holds particular promise. Symbolic actions and visibility. Women's movement sweeps Latin America to loosen abortion restrictions. Triggered sufficiently to throw some flares at an offending apartment displaying symbols of solidarity with the Women’s Strike and LGBTQ+ communities, a group of ultra-nationalists set fire to an entirely different flat storing works of respected Polish artist Stanisław Ignacy Witkiewicz. There is a movement by Polish feminists to change the focus of International Women's Day in order to mobilize women toward activism. The 1920s saw the emergence of radical feminism in Poland. The history of abortion law in Poland is a testimony to states fighting to forge national identities over the bodies of women. It was established in 1910. Those real problems were never officially recognized and any discussion of them was forbidden. However, there is a sense that recent events in Belarus may be on the minds of protesters, security forces and the government — particularly when Poland has been very accommodating to dissidents and ordinary Belarusians escaping repression — with the “bad optics” of Lukashenko’s security forces attacking women who have been at the forefront of many demonstrations. While male writers focused on the ‘mysterious and mystic’ nature of women, female authors (e.g. State funding of contraceptives have been strongly suppressed since 1989 . Poland abortion strike: Thousands of women in over 60 cities refuse to work in protest over restrictive laws 'I am doing it for my daughter,' says one woman Despite seemingly favorable conditions for the development of a feminist movement in Poland, such a movement has been slow to develop. The provisions of the Act allowed women to control their own property (except their dowry), to act as witnesses to legal documents, to act as custodian of her children if her husband was incapacitated, and to live separately from her spouse. Poland had the first female government minister in the world.. © 2018 Waging Nonviolence. The women’s rights convention at Seneca Falls, New York, where the Declaration of Sentiments was read , … Thanks for covering the issue of women’s abortion rights. Currently, Poland still has one of the most restrictive abortion laws in Europe. One could be forgiven for thinking that the issue of abortion, as well as issues such as LGBTQ+ rights, might be highly divisive along generational lines, yet the bold actions of the grannies shows the situation is more complex. "Poland Feminist Genealogy". Once again, the far-right were left tilting at rainbows and silhouettes of women. The women’s French Open finalist in profile. "Abortion Not Allowed in These European Countries", https://www.nytimes.com/2018/03/23/world/europe/poland-abortion-women-protest.html, https://wiadomosci.wp.pl/kaja-godek-6359706245863553c, https://www.polskieradio.pl/9/396/Artykul/2190531,Teolozka-i-feministka-o-roli-kobiet-w-Kosciele, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Feminism_in_Poland&oldid=991745427, Articles needing additional references from August 2019, All articles needing additional references, Wikipedia articles needing factual verification from November 2017, Articles with disputed statements from August 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2020, Articles with failed verification from August 2019, Articles with dead external links from March 2018, Articles with permanently dead external links, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 1 December 2020, at 16:34. According to the TASS reporter from the scene, several hundred people joined the demonstration in Warsaw. Krzywicka and Tadeusz Żeleński (‘Boy’) both promoted planned parenthood, sexual education, rights to divorce and abortion, and strict equality of sexes. Black protests are an example of a grassroots social initiative of women in Poland. I very much admire how women of all age groups, from teenagers to ‘grannies,’ got together against anti-abortion law in Poland. Instead, online events were held under the banner “Quarantine from Nationalism.”. When the police eventually cordoned most of the protesters in front of the PiS mouthpiece TVP media building, undercover police officers occasionally beat back the demonstrators while using tear gas and stun grenades. With a reported substantial influx of police into Warsaw in anticipation of demonstrations outside the Sejm — Poland’s Parliament — and the visible presence once more of military police outside churches and government buildings, some apprehension over a show of force was expressed on protest groups’ social media accounts. The primary space of communication has become the Internet – especially social media (Facebook). Pope compares abortion … In threatening to cut funding to educational facilities permitting their students to join the protests, the Education Minister Przemysław Czarnek has also succeeded in alienating many teachers and university tutors. On Oct. 30, Warsaw was host to one of the largest demonstrations since the collapse of Communism, with at least 100,000 – 150,000 people marching together to oppose the new abortion law. By 1913, the women’s suffrage movement in the US had long been brewing. Anti-abortion law protesters successfully blockade the main junction of Rondo Charles de Gaulle, 18th November (WNV/ Craig Brown). While this might superficially lend itself to the government’s rhetoric of violent protesters, an honest analysis would see that as pathetic given the peaceful nature of the resistance actions. 1918: The Azerbaijan Democratic Republic (1918–1920) grants civil and political rights (including suffrage) to all citizens regardless of ethnic origin, religion, class, profession, or sex. in the caption. On the Gdziecowwa Telegram channel, a post read: “Do you think we will ever forget about it? Some businesses in Poland close for the day as thousands of women go on strike to protest against proposals for a total ban on abortion. Your email address will not be published. , Article 96 of the Polish constitution of 1921 provided that all citizens were equal under law, however, it did not apply to married women. Maria Konopnicka, Eliza Orzeszkowa) were occupied with more rational aspects of feminity. Women taking to the streets in Poland against this latest attack on abortion rights brings us back full circle to the Polish streets again where the movement first began. Until 1993 it was even a public Holiday in Poland.  However, if one defines "first wave feminism" as Betty Friedan and others have as a global movement in the 19th and 20th centuries mainly concerned with women's right to vote (i.e., women's suffrage), then Poland experienced this at the same time as other Western countries, toward the end of the 19th, and especially at the beginning of the 20th century. Poland experienced the third (and strongest) wave after 1870, under preponderant Western influence. In the end, the government withdrew the draft proposal for restricting abortion rights. On October 3, 2017, activists and Polish citizens marked the first Black Protest anniversary with demonstrations against ongoing attempts to curb abortion.On October 4, police raided NGO offices, including three offices of Women’s Rights Center and the office of BABA, all in different cities. Opposition to new anti-abortion law sparks Poland’s largest protests in decades, general decline in their own popular support, the phone number of Abortions Without Borders, the only accusation left against the protesters, global initiative for people to engage in outdoor sports and activities, yet the bold actions of the grannies shows the situation is more complex, plight of artists and creatives during the coronavirus, In threatening to cut funding to educational facilities, there have been cases of taxi and public transport drivers participating, who have been at the forefront of many demonstrations, there seems a genuine effort to make them inclusive toward younger and diverse members, continue their own initiatives on the ground, broader aims of the Women’s Strike movement should be, strike by women was held on Wednesday Oct. 28. the women's movement fits into Polish society in the light of public opinion on the women's movement, women's rights and issues of equality, also looking at how these views evolved over the 1990s, and the reasons behind them. He strongly supported women's intellectual and economic emancipation and their free access to higher education. Required fields are marked *. The law also removed the requirements that a woman had to obey her husband and abolished requirements for a wife to obtain her husband's permission to engage in legal actions.:250. As Poland’s women’s movement celebrates a tentative victory, LGBTI activists are still fighting PiS’s ugly culture war . In Poland during the years 1940–1989, feminism in general, and second-wave feminism in particular, were practically absent[need quotation to verify]. In Poland, stereotypes view women as either man hating feminists (much like the stereotype seen in America) or traditional mother figures. The sign read: “Women, do not disturb us. But thirdly, it was also due in part to the contacts and relationships that feminist movements in Poland has built up over the past decades. The period prior to this was dominated by the "women's question", when elite women and a few men challenged the subordination of women to men, but did not necessarily advocate or collectively organize for equal political rights, nor vast social change. The vast majority of demonstrators remained unprovoked, and overall a strong statement of continued presence in the streets of the capital was made. Craig Brown is a Sociology departmental affiliate at UMass Amherst. Women’s Suffrage summary: The women’s suffrage movement (aka woman suffrage) was the struggle for the right of women to vote and run for office and is part of the overall women’s rights movement.  Róża Melcerowa expressed those feelings: Feminism (...) in fact ended among those nations where de jure had secured its object: social and political equality. Women’s Day, Polish: Dzień Kobiet is celebrated each year on 8th of March. Polish women went on strike and tens of thousands took to the streets to protest a nearly complete ban on abortion, as a mass movement standoff against a … The history of abortion law in Poland is a testimony to states fighting to forge national identities over the bodies of women. As Poland’s women’s movement celebrates a tentative victory, LGBTI activists are still fighting PiS’s ugly culture war . Facts, information and articles about Women’s Suffrage Movement, the struggle for the right of women to vote. Poland abortion strike: Thousands of women in over 60 cities refuse to work in protest over restrictive laws 'I am doing it for my daughter,' says one woman.  The first four early periods coincided with the foreign partitions of Poland, which resulted in the elimination of the sovereign Polish state for 123 years. This piece contained radical demands for equality of the sexes in education and the professions. It is also common to see the phone number of Abortions Without Borders, a Polish organization promoting safe access to abortions, written across the city, in a strong act of defiance. The number of police that turn up to confront the Polish grandmothers and their younger companions, and the swiftness with which the police moved among the protesters on Nov. 12 to issue fines, seemed intimidating. His PhD assessed the methods of resistance during the 2011 Tunisian Revolution. Participants of the first Polish Congress of women with disabilities and their allies. It was set up in protest against the rejection by the Sejm of the Polish Parliament of the bill "Save Women", which was considered by the Sejm in parallel to the project "Stop to Abortion". The Solidarity trade union movement was dominated by men. The European Union (EU) and its member states should hold Poland to account for failing to implement EU policy on equality, women’s rights, and … According to one scholarly postulation, the history of feminism in Poland can be divided into seven periods, beginning with the 19th century first-wave feminism. In efforts to maintain momentum and encourage broader sections of the population to come out and demonstrate, protesters have also traveled out to satellite towns around Warsaw to join local demonstrations, as in Otwock on Nov. 5. We are fighting for Poland.” While the women strikers are the most famous members of the Polish opposition movement, KOD, which is technically a civil society organization, is the largest. (For example, “yesterday” can be changed to “last week,” and “Portland” to “Portland, Ore.” or “here.”). The ban on abortions has appeared immovable. , Zuzanna Radzik claims to be a Catholic feminist. Women’s rights movement, also called women’s liberation movement, diverse social movement, largely based in the United States, that in the 1960s and ’70s sought equal rights and opportunities and greater personal freedom for women.It coincided with and is recognized as part of the “second wave” of feminism.While the first-wave feminism of the 19th and early 20th centuries focused … Women’s March on … Afterwards, feminist voices were almost silenced (until 1989)[need quotation to verify]; the state considered feminist demands fulfilled, any open discussion about women's problems was forbidden[need quotation to verify], only official (‘materialist’ and ‘Marxist’) feminist texts, mainly focused on taking off women the burden of ‘traditional’ female domestic work, were allowed[need quotation to verify]. What were the initial aims of your movement and your views on working with allies? Ten years into the transition, the country has been undergoing major political and economic changes: the new rights to … You have to credit us. Protests that began in Poland after the threat of a ban on abortion due to fetal […] She received an honorary degree from the Institute of Literary Research of the Polish Academy of Sciences. , In Poland, International Women's Day comes with some practices that Polish feminists find problematic. A woman protests a proposed abortion ban in Warsaw, Poland, on April 14.  Post-communist Poland experienced the seventh wave of feminism and was suddenly confronted with concepts of Western second-wave feminism that at once met with fierce opposition from the Roman Catholic Church. Poland itself was an early supporter of women’s suffrage. Nałkowska's first novel, Kobiety (Women) (1906), and another novel, Narcyza (1910), denounced female passivity confronted with what she perceived as masculine domination. "Saving and fearing Muslim women in ‘post-communist’Poland: troubling Catholic and secular Islamophobia." It was then that Klementyna z Tańskich Hoffmanowa wrote the first Polish text with ‘feminist’ features, Pamiątka po dobrej matce (Remembrance of a Good Mother) (1819). In the context of a government that continues alienating various social and economic groups, either through their handling of the abortion law or the broader economic problems, the Women’s Strike movement’s efforts to organize a general strike continue. Narkowicz, Kasia, and Konrad Pędziwiatr. Under slogans such as “ Militant Polish woman “or “The Polish woman is not yet lost”, and in particular actions and works of art that are strongly provocative, women artists are hijacking patriotic symbols in order to expose their chauvinist and sexist nature, … , This period, known as the "sixth wave" of Polish feminism, was characterized by considerable propaganda advocating equality of the sexes and by massive women's participation in industrial production, agriculture, and politics. In Poland, stereotypes view women as either man hating feminists (much like the stereotype seen in America) or traditional mother figures. Women’s rights activists and many thousands of supporters held a fifth day of protests across Poland on Monday, defying pandemic restrictions to express their fury at a … Feffer, John. In this "wave," it is worth noting, men were principal advocates of the feminist cause: Adam Wiślicki published the article "Niezależność kobiety" ("Woman’s Independence") in Przegląd Naukowy (1870). In a previous article I covered the week’s events leading up to that demonstration. It was a victory for women in Poland. History The earliest Women’s Day was held on 28th February 1909, […] The Second World War virtually silenced Polish feminists. Gozlinski, Pawel (4 April 2011). These two factors gave Polish women less reason to organize autonomously. While tactics such as road blockades have previously been perceived as antagonistic to the broader population whose sympathy and support is being courted, there have been cases of taxi and public transport drivers participating. Waging Nonviolence partners with other organizations and publishes their work. Beneath the headlines and eye-catching activities, such actions in future could prove no less of a challenge to patriarchal norms.  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